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command line + MacOs structure

  • cd
  • cd ..
  • cd /path/
  • mkdir FolderName
  • touch filename.txt
  • Options modify the behavior of commands:
    • ls -a lists all contents of a directory, including hidden files and directories
    • ls -l lists all contents in long format
    • ls -t orders files and directories by the time they were last modified
    • Multiple options can be used together, like ls -alt
  • From the command line, you can also copy, move, and remove files and directories:
    • cp copies files
    • mv moves and renames files
    • rm removes files
    • rm -r(recursive) removes directories and child items
  • Wildcards are useful for selecting groups of files and directories


MacOS structure

Directory Description
/Applications Self explanatory, this is where your Mac’s applications are kept
/Developer The Developer directory appears only if you have installed Apple’s Developer Tools, and no surprise, contains developer related tools, documentation, and files.
/Library Shared libraries, files necessary for the operating system to function properly, including settings, preferences, and other necessities (note: you also have a Libraries folder in your home directory, which holds files specific to that user).
/Network largely self explanatory, network related devices, servers, libraries, etc
/System System related files, libraries, preferences, critical for the proper function of Mac OS X
/Users All user accounts on the machine and their accompanying unique files, settings, etc. Much like /home in Linux
/Volumes Mounted devices and volumes, either virtual or real, such as hard disks, CD’s, DVD’s, DMG mounts, etc
/ Root directory, present on virtually all UNIX based file systems. Parent directory of all other files
/bin Essential common binaries, holds files and programs needed to boot the operating system and run properly
/etc Machine local system configuration, holds administrative, configuration, and other system files
/dev Device files, all files that represent peripheral devices including keyboards, mice, trackpads, etc
/usr Second major hierarchy, includes subdirectories that contain information, configuration files, and other essentials used by the operating system
/sbin Essential system binaries, contains utilities for system administration
/tmp Temporary files, caches, etc
/var Variable data, contains files whose contents change as the operating system runs

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